Wikipedia

Viceroy of Liangguang

Map of viceroys in Qing Dynasty of China
Viceroy of Liangguang
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 兩廣總督
Simplified Chinese 两广总督
Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas

(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督兩廣等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督两广等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡤᡠᠸᠠᠩᡩᡠᠩ

ᡤᡠᠸᠠᠩᠰᡳ

ᡠᡥᡝᡵᡳ

ᡴᠠᡩᠠᠯᠠᡵᠠ

ᠠᠮᠪᠠᠨ
Romanization guwangdung guwangsi uheri kadalara amban

The Viceroy of Liangguang or Viceroy of the Two Guangs, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General, Commander and Quartermaster, Supervisor of Waterways, and Inspector-General of the Two Expanses and Surrounding Areas, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The two Guangs referred to Guangdong and Guangxi provinces. The areas under the Viceroy's jurisdiction included present-day Guangdong and Guangxi provinces, as well as Hainan Province.

History [ edit ]

Ming dynasty [ edit ]

The office of the Viceroy of Liangguang originated in 1452 during the Ming dynasty. The Jingtai Emperor accepted Yu Qian's proposal to create the office and appointed Wang Ao (王翱) as the first viceroy.

In 1465, the Chenghua Emperor appointed Han Yong (韓雍) as Left Censor-in-Chief and Viceroy of Liangguang. The office was formalised in 1469, with the administrative headquarters fixed in Wuzhou, Guangxi.

In 1536, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor, the viceroy Qian Rujing (錢如京) created a separate administrative branch in Zhaoqing, Guangdong. In 1564, the headquarters shifted from Wuzhou to Zhaoqing after Wu Guifang (吳桂芳) sought approval from the Jiajing Emperor.

Qing dynasty [ edit ]

The office was recreated in 1644 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor in the Qing dynasty. It was called "Viceroy of Guangdong" (廣東總督) even though its jurisdiction included Guangxi. The headquarters were in Guangzhou, Guangdong. In 1655, the headquarters shifted back to Wuzhou.

In 1663, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the office was split into two: Viceroy of Guangdong and Viceroy of Guangxi. The headquarters of the Viceroy of Guangdong moved to Lianzhou (廉州; present-day Hepu County, Guangxi). A year later, the Viceroy of Guangxi was merged with the Viceroy of Guangdong, and the headquarters shifted back to Zhaoqing.

In 1723, during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, the office was divided into Guangdong and Guangxi again, but were merged again within the following year. In 1729, in response to a rebellion by the Miao people, the Yongzheng Emperor placed Guangxi under the jurisdiction of the Viceroy of Yun-Gui to facilitate the coordination of military operations. In 1734, Guangdong and Guangxi were merged under a single office, Viceroy of Liangjiang, and had remained like this until 1905.

In 1746, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor, the headquarters of the Viceroy of Liangguang shifted to Guangzhou and remained there permanently.

In 1905, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor, the Viceroy of Liangguang concurrently held the position of Provincial Governor of Guangdong.

List of Viceroys of Liangguang [ edit ]

Ming dynasty [ edit ]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
1 Wang Ao

王翱
王翱.png 1452 1453 Promoted to Secretary of Personnel
2 Han Yong

韓雍
1465 Concurrently Left Censor-in-Chief
3 Qin Hong

秦紘
1489 1495 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief; later dismissed from office
4 Deng Tingzan

鄧廷瓚
1495 1497 Concurrently a Provincial Governor; later promoted to Left Censor-in-Chief
5 Pan Fan

潘蕃
1501 1506 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief; later promoted to Left Censor-in-Chief
6 Xiong Xiu

熊繡
1506 1514 Concurrently Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief; later promoted to Censor-in-Chief in Nanjing
7 Zhou Nan

周南
1514 1515 Retired
8 Chen Jin

陳金
1515 1519 Later promoted to Censor-in-Chief
9 Zhang Ding

張嵿
1522 1525 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief; later promoted to Censor-in-Chief in Nanjing and Secretary of Works
10 Yao Mo

姚鏌
1525 1527 Concurrently Right Censor-in-Chief
11 Wang Shouren

王守仁
Wang-yang-ming.jpg 1527 1529 Concurrently Secretary of Defence in Nanjing and Left Censor-in-Chief
12 Zhang Jing

張經
1537 1544 Promoted to Left Vice Secretary of Defence
13 Tao Xie

陶諧
Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
14 Bao Xiangxian

鮑象賢
Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
15 Zhang Yue

張岳
1544 1545 Concurrently Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief
16 Wu Guifang

吳桂芳
1563 1566 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
17 Tan Lun

譚綸
1567 1568
18 Zhang Han

張瀚
1568 1569 Concurrently Left Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
19 Liu Tao

劉燾
1569 1570 Concurrently Left Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
20 Li Qian

李遷
1570 1571 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Censor-in-Chief
21 Yin Zhengmao

殷正茂
1571 1575 Concurrently Secretary of Defence in Nanjing
22 Ling Yunyi

凌雲翼
1575 1578 Concurrently Left Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
23 Liu Yaohui

劉堯誨
Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
24 Chen Rui

陳瑞
1582 1583 Concurrently Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
25 Guo Yingping

郭應聘
1583 1584 Concurrently Secretary of Defence
26 Wu Wenhua

吳文華
1584 1587 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
27 Wu Shan

吳善
1587 1588 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
28 Liu Jiwen

劉繼文
1588 1591 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
29 Xiao Yan

蕭彥
1591 1592 Concurrently Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief
30 Chen Ju

陳榘
1593 1594 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Revenue
31 Chen Dake

陳大科
1595 1598 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
32 Dai Yao

戴耀
1598 1609 Concurrently Secretary of Defence and Right Deputy Censor-in-Chief
33 Zhang Minggang

張鳴岡
1610 1614 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
34 Zhou Jiamo

周嘉謨
1615 1617 Concurrently Provincial Governor of Yunnan
35 Xu Honggang

許宏鋼
1618 1620 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
36 Chen Bangzhan

陳邦瞻
1620 1621 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
37 Hu Yingtai

胡應台
1621 1624 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
38 He Shijin

何士晉
1624 1625 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
39 Shang Zhouzuo

商周祚
1625 1626 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
40 Li Fengjie

李逢節
1627 1628 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
41 Wang Zunde

王尊德
1628 1631 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence; died in office
42 Wang Yehao

王業浩
1631 1632 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
43 Xiong Wencan

熊文燦
1632 1637 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence and Right Censor-in-Chief
44 Zhang Jingxin

張鏡心
1637 1641 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
45 Shen Youlong

沈猶龍
沈猶龍.jpg 1641 1644 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence

Southern Ming dynasty [ edit ]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
46 Ding Kuichu

丁魁楚
1644 1644 Concurrently Right Vice Secretary of Defence
47 Wang Huacheng

王化澄
1646 1646 Concurrently Provincial Governor of Guangdong
48 Lin Jiading

林佳鼎
February 1646 1647
49 Zhu Zhijian

朱治澗
1647 1647 Concurrently Vice Secretary of Defence
50 Li Chengdong

李成棟
1648 April 1649
51 Li Qipeng

李棲鵬
April 1649 April 1649
52 Yan Keyi

閻可義
August 1649 August 1649 Died of illness in office
53 Li Jianjie

李建捷
September 1649 September 1649
54 Luo Chengyao

羅承耀
September 1649 September 1649
55 Du Yunhe

杜允和
October 1649 1650 Retreated from Guangzhou after the city fell to Qing forces led by Shang Kexi and Geng Jimao
56 Lian Chengbi

連城璧
1650 1659

Qing dynasty [ edit ]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
Viceroy of Guangdong

(including Guangxi)

(1644–1661)
1644 15 June 1647 Vacant
1 Tong Yangjia

佟養甲
15 June 1647 1651
1651 12 July 1653 Vacant
2 Li Shuaitai

李率泰
Li Shuaitai.png 12 July 1653 16 March 1656
3 Wang Guoguang

王國光
16 March 1656 10 July 1658
4 Li Qifeng

李棲鳳
10 July 1658 2 November 1661
Viceroy of Guangdong

(1661–1665)
5 Li Qifeng

李棲鳳
2 November 1661 2 April 1665
6 Lu Xingzu

盧興祖
2 April 1665 4 July 1665
Viceroy of Guangxi

(1661–1665)
Yu Shiyue

于時躍
1661 1663
Qu Jinmei

屈盡美
1663 1665
Viceroy of Liangguang

(1665–1723)
7 Lu Xingzu

盧興祖
4 July 1665 30 December 1667
8 Zhou Youde

周有德
Zhou Youde.jpg 30 January 1668 6 February 1670
9 Jin Guangzu[citation needed]

金光祖
6 March 1668 1 February 1682
10 Wu Xingzuo

吳興祚
1 February 1682 8 August 1689
11 Shi Lin

石琳
19 August 1682 17 December 1702
12 Guo Shilong

郭世隆
17 December 1702 23 January 1707
13 Zhao Hongcan

趙弘燦
30 January 1707 19 November 1716
14 Yang Lin

楊琳
25 November 1716 9 September 1723
Viceroy of Guangdong

(1723–1724)
15 Yang Lin

楊琳
9 September 1723 26 April 1724
Viceroy of Guangxi

(1723–1724)
Kong Yuxun

孔毓珣
1723 1724
Viceroy of Liangguang

(1724–1728)
16 Kong Yuxun

孔毓珣
26 April 1724 11 November 1728
Viceroy of Guangdong

(Guangxi was under the Viceroy of Yun-Gui)

(1728–1734)
17 Kong Yuxun

孔毓珣
11 November 1728 29 March 1729
18 Hao Yulin

郝玉麟
29 March 1729 21 March 1732
Zhang Pu

張溥
14 October 1731 25 February 1732 Acting Viceroy
Omida

鄂彌達
21 March 1732 17 October 1732 Acting Viceroy
19 Omida

鄂彌達
21 March 1732 5 January 1735
Viceroy of Liangguang

(1734–1905)
20 Omida

鄂彌達
5 January 1735 30 August 1738
21 Martai

馬爾泰
30 August 1738 10 August 1744
Qingfu

慶復
28 May 1741 28 January 1743 Acting Viceroy
Ts'ereng

策楞
28 January 1743 17 July 1743 Acting Viceroy
22 Nasutu

那蘇圖
10 August 1744 14 May 1745
23 Ts'ereng

策楞
14 May 1745 28 October 1748
24 Yengišan

尹繼善
尹繼善.jpg 28 October 1748 24 November 1748
25 Šose

碩色
24 November 1748 9 February 1750
26 Chen Dashou

陳大受
9 February 1750 14 November 1751
27 Arigun

阿里袞
Arigun.jpg 14 November 1751 24 February 1753
Bandi

班第
Meritorious Officers Paintings of Ziguang Ge-Bandi.JPG 16 October 1753 3 May 1754 Acting Viceroy
28 Ts'ereng

策楞
16 October 1753 3 May 1754
29 Yang Yingju

楊應琚
3 May 1754 31 August 1757
30 Henian

鶴年
31 August 1757 14 January 1758
Li Shiyao

李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg Acting Viceroy
31 Chen Hongmou

陳弘謀
陈弘谋.jpg 14 January 1758 27 May 1758
32 Li Shiyao

李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg 27 May 1758 27 May 1761
33 Suchang

蘇昌
27 May 1761 22 July 1764
34 Li Shiyao

李侍堯
Li Shiyao.jpg 22 July 1764 25 February 1777
Yang Tingzhang

楊廷璋
22 July 1765 24 April 1767 Acting Viceroy
35 Yang Jingsu

楊景素
25 February 1777 19 March 1778
36 Guilin

桂林
19 March 1778 11 January 1780
37 Bayansan

巴延三
11 January 1780 20 February 1784
38 Shuchang

舒常
20 February 1784 26 February 1785
Sun Shiyi

孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 26 February 1785 1 September 1785 Acting Viceroy
39 Fulehun

富勒渾
1 September 1785 23 May 1786
40 Sun Shiyi

孫士毅
Sun Shiyi.jpg 23 May 1786 19 February 1789
41 Fuk'anggan

福康安
Fuk'anggan.jpg 19 February 1789 14 September 1793
42 Changlin

長麟
14 September 1793 5 July 1796
43 Zhu Gui

朱珪
朱珪.jpg 5 July 1796 29 September 1796
44 Jiqing

吉慶
29 September 1796 17 December 1802
45 Changlin

長麟
17 December 1802 26 January 1803
Hutuli

瑚圖禮
Acting Viceroy
46 Wesibu

倭什布
26 January 1803 30 January 1805
47 Nayancheng

那彥成
30 January 1805 12 December 1805
48 Wu Xiongguang

吳熊光
12 December 1805 6 January 1809
49 Yongbao

永保
6 January 1809 20 February 1809
50 Bailing

百齡
20 February 1809 16 February 1811
51 Songyun

松筠
16 February 1811 5 November 1811
52 Jiang Youxian

蔣攸銛
5 November 1811 22 October 1817
53 Ruan Yuan

阮元
阮元像.JPG 22 October 1817 22 June 1826
54 Li Hongbin

李鴻賓
22 June 1826 14 September 1832
55 Lu Kun

盧坤
14 September 1832 15 October 1835
56 Deng Tingzhen

鄧廷楨
Deng Tingzhen.png 15 October 1835 21 January 1840
57 Lin Zexu

林則徐
Commissioner Lin 2.png 21 January 1840 3 October 1840
Yiliang

怡良
28 September 1840 4 December 1840 Acting Viceroy
58 Qishan

琦善
4 December 1840 26 February 1841
59 Qi Gong

祁𡎴
26 February 1841 19 March 1844
60 Qiying

耆英
Portrait of Keying.jpeg 19 March 1844 4 July 1848
Xu Guangjin

徐廣縉
3 February 1848 4 July 1848 Acting Viceroy
61 Xu Guangjin

徐廣縉
4 July 1848 7 September 1852
62 Ye Mingchen

葉名琛
Ye Mingchen.jpg 7 September 1852 26 January 1858 [1]
63 Huang Zonghan

黃宗漢
26 January 1858 4 May 1859
64 Wang Qingyun

王慶雲
4 May 1859 7 October 1859
Bogui

柏貴
4 May 1859 21 May 1859 Acting Viceroy
Lao Chongguang

勞崇光
勞崇光.jpg 21 May 1859 7 October 1859 Acting Viceroy
65 Lao Chongguang

勞崇光
勞崇光.jpg 7 October 1859 17 October 1862
66 Liu Changyou

劉長佑
17 October 1862 14 February 1863
Yan Duanshu

晏端書
14 February 1863 6 July 1863 Acting Viceroy
67 Mao Hongbin

毛鴻賓
6 July 1863 7 March 1865
Wu Tang

吳棠
7 March 1865 13 March 1865 Acting Viceroy
68 Ruilin

瑞麟
JUI-LIN, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE TWO KWANG PROVINCES.jpg 13 March 1865 17 October 1874
Ruilin

瑞麟
JUI-LIN, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE TWO KWANG PROVINCES.jpg 13 March 1865 25 September 1866 Acting Viceroy
69 Yinghan

英翰
17 October 1874 2 September 1875
Zhang Zhaodong

張兆棟
17 October 1874 31 March 1875 Acting Viceroy
70 Liu Kunyi

劉坤一
Liu Kunyi LOC ggbain 03677.jpg 2 September 1875 27 December 1879
Yukuan

裕寬
18 December 1878 27 December 1879 Acting Viceroy
71 Zhang Shusheng

張樹聲
27 December 1879 19 April 1882
Yukuan

裕寬
27 December 1879 20 May 1880 Acting Viceroy
Yukuan

裕寬
19 April 1882 6 May 1882 Acting Viceroy
72 Zeng Guoquan

曾國荃
平定粵匪功臣像─曾國荃像.jpg 6 May 1882 13 July 1883
73 Zhang Shusheng

張樹聲
13 July 1883 22 May 1884
74 Zhang Zhidong

張之洞
張之洞朝服照.jpg 22 May 1884 8 August 1889
75 Li Hanzhang

李瀚章
8 August 1889 13 April 1895
76 Tan Zhonglin

譚鍾麟
16 April 1895 19 December 1899 The office was renamed to "Viceroy of Liangguang and Provincial Governor of Guangdong" between 30 August and 1 November 1898.
Deshou

德壽
19 December 1899 24 May 1900 Acting Viceroy
77 Li Hongzhang

李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 24 May 1900 9 July 1900
Deshou

德壽
9 July 1900 16 September 1900 Acting Viceroy
78 Lu Chuanlin

鹿傳霖
Lu Chuanlin.jpg 16 September 1900 26 September 1900
79 Tao Mo

陶模
26 September 1900 2 July 1902
Deshou

德壽
3 July 1902 18 April 1903
80 Cen Chunxuan

岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 18 April 1903 23 July 1905
Viceroy of Liangguang and Provincial Governor of Guangdong

(1905–1911)
81 Cen Chunxuan

岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 23 July 1905 11 September 1906
82 Zhou Fu

周馥
Chou Fu.jpg 11 September 1906 28 May 1907
83 Cen Chunxuan

岑春煊
Cen Chunxuan (1).jpg 28 May 1907 12 August 1907
84 Zhang Renjun

張人駿
Zhang Renjun.jpg 12 August 1907 28 June 1909
Yuan Shuxun

袁樹勛
28 June 1909 29 October 1910 Acting Viceroy
Zengqi

增祺
29 October 1910 14 April 1911 Acting Viceroy
85 Zhang Mingqi

張鳴岐
張鳴岐.jpg 4 April 1911 8 November 1911
86 Li Zhun

李準
26 November 1911 Never assumed office
Lu Rongting

陸榮廷
Lu Rongting.jpg July 1917 July 1917 During the Manchu Restoration attempt

References [ edit ]

Citations [ edit ]

  1. ^ Wong, J.Y. (1976). Yeh Ming-ch'en: Viceroy of Liang Kuang 1852-8. CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-21023-2.

Sources [ edit ]

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