Voiced alveolar lateral affricate
|Voiced alveolar lateral affricate|
|IPA Number||104 (149)|
|Unicode (hex)||U+0064 U+0361 U+026E|
Features [ edit ]
Features of the voiced alveolar lateral affricate:
- Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Occurrence [ edit ]
Voiced alveolar lateral affricates are rare. Sandawe has been transcribed with [dɮ], but the sound is more post-alveolar or palatal than alveolar. Consonants written dl in Athabaskan and Wakashan languages are either tenuis affricates, [t͜ɬ] (perhaps slightly voiced allophonically), or have an approximant release, [tˡ] or [dˡ]. In Montana Salish, /l/ may be prestopped, depending on context, in which case it may be realized as [ᵈl] or as an affricate [ᵈɮ̤]. In the Nguni languages [d͡ɮ] occurs after nasals: /nɮ̤/ is pronounced [nd͡ɮ̤], with an epenthetic stop, in at least Xhosa and Zulu.
|Montana Salish||p̓əllič̓č||[pʼəd͡ɮɮít͡ʃʼt͡ʃ]||'turned over'||Positional allophone of /l/|
|Xhosa||indlovu||[ind͡ɮ̤ɔːv̤u] [missing tone]||'elephant'||Allophone of /ɮ̤/ after /n/|
References [ edit ]
- Flemming, Ladefoged & Thomason (1994) "Phonetic structures of Montana Salish", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 87: 7
- Scarraffiotti (2011) Parlons Xhosa p. 13
- Rycroft & Ngcobo (1979) Say it in Zulu, p. 6
[ edit ]
- List of languages with [dɮ] on PHOIBLE