Voiced velar fricative

Voiced velar fricative
IPA Number 141
Entity (decimal) ɣ
Unicode (hex) U+0263
Braille ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Audio sample
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The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound that is used in various spoken languages. It is not found in Modern English but existed in Old English.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɣ⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨γ⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically-similar ⟨ɤ⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[2] use for the voiced velar fricative.

The symbol ⟨ɣ⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, which, however, is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ], but there can be stylistic reasons to avoid using it in phonetic transcription.

There is also a voiced post-velar fricative, also called pre-uvular, in some languages. For the voiced pre-velar fricative, also called post-palatal, see voiced palatal fricative.

Features [ edit ]

Features of the voiced velar fricative:

Occurrence [ edit ]

Some of the consonants listed as post-velar may actually be trill fricatives.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza бгъьы [bɣʲə] 'leaf'
Adyghe чъыгы About this sound[t͡ʂəɣə]  'tree'
Aklanon baeay [baɣaj] 'house'
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Aleut agiitalix [aɣiːtalix] 'with'
Angor ranihı [ɾɑniɣə] 'brother'
Angas γür [ɣyr] 'to pick up'
Arabic Modern Standard [3] غريب [ɣæˈriːb] 'stranger' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[4] See Arabic phonology
Aromanian ghini [ˈɣ] 'well' Allophone of /g/
Assyrian/Syriac Eastern ܦܓ̣ܪܐ‎ / paġ [pʰʌɣrʌ] 'body' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.
Western [fʌɣrɔ]
Asturian gadañu [ɣaˈd̪ãɲʊ] 'scythe' Allophone of /ɡ/ in almost all positions
Azerbaijani ağac [ɑɣɑd͡ʒ] 'tree'
Basque [5] hego [heɣo] 'wing' Allophone of /ɡ/
Belarusian галава [ɣalava] 'head'
Catalan [6] figuera [fiˈɣeɾə] 'fig tree' Allophone of /ɡ/. See Catalan phonology
Chechen гӀала / ġala [ɣaːla] 'town'
Chinese Xiang 湖南 [ɣu˩˧nia˩˧] 'Hunan (province)'
Czech bych byl [bɪɣ bɪl] 'I would be' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Dinka ɣo [ɣo] 'us'
Dutch Standard Belgian[7][8] gaan [ɣaːn] 'to go' May be post-palatal [ʝ̠] instead.[8] See Dutch phonology
Southern accents[8]
Georgian [9] არიბი [ɣɑribi] 'poor' May actually be post-velar or uvular
German [10] [11] [failed verification] damalige [ˈdaːmaːlɪɣə] 'former' Intervocalic allophone of /g/ in casual Austrian speech.[10][11] See Standard German phonology
Ghari cheghe [tʃeɣe] 'five'
Greek γάλα/gála [ˈɣɐlɐ] 'milk' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati વા [ʋɑ̤̈ɣəɽ̃] 'tigress' See Gujarati phonology
Gweno [ndeɣe] 'bird'
Gwich’in videeghàn [viteːɣân] 'his/her chest'
Haitian Creole diri [diɣi] 'rice'
Hän dëgëghor [təkəɣor] 'I am playing'
Hebrew Yemenite מִגְדָּל [miɣdɔl] 'tower'
Hindustani Hindi [12] ग़रीब [ɣ̄əriːb] 'poor' Post-velar.[12] See Hindustani phonology
Urdu غریب
Iranian Turkic اوغول [oɣul] 'son'
Icelandic saga [ˈsaːɣaː] 'saga' See Icelandic phonology
Irish a dhorn [ə ɣoːɾˠn̪ˠ] 'his fist' See Irish phonology
Istro-Romanian [13] gură [ˈɣurə] 'mouth' Corresponds to [g][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Iwaidja [mulaɣa] 'hermit crab'
Japanese [14] はげ/hage [haɣe] 'baldness' Allophone of /ɡ/, especially in fast or casual speech. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian гын About this sound[ɣən]  'powder'
Korean 아가/aga [aɣa] 'baby'
Lezgian гъел [ɣel] 'sleigh'
Limburgish [15] [16] gaw [ɣɑ̟β̞] 'quick' The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanian humoras [ˈɣʊmɔrɐs̪] 'humor' Preferred over [ɦ]. See Lithuanian phonology
Low German [17] gaan [ˈɣɔ̃ːn] 'to go' Increasingly replaced with High German [g]
Malay Standard Malay ghaib [ɣai̯b] 'unseen' Mostly in loanwords from Arabic. Indonesians tend to replace the sound with /g/.
Kelantan dialect ramai [ɣamaː] 'crowded (with people)' /r/ in Standard Malay is barely articulated in almost all of the Malay dialects in Malaysia. Usually it is uttered as guttural R at initial and medial position of a word. See Malay phonology
Terengganu dialect
Negeri Sembilan dialect [ɣamai̯]
Pahang dialect [ɣamɛ̃ː]
Sarawak dialect [ɣamɛː]
Macedonian Berovo accent дувна [ˈduɣna] 'it blew' Corresponds to etymological /x/ of other dialects, before sonorants. See Maleševo-Pirin dialect and Macedonian phonology
Bukovo accent глава [ˈɡɣa(v)a] 'head' Allophone of /l/ instead of usual [ɫ]. See Prilep-Bitola dialect
Mandarin Dongping dialect [ɣän55] 'I'
Navajo ’aghá [ʔaɣa] 'best'
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [nøɣə̀] 'sun'
Northern Qiang ? [ɣnəʂ] 'February'
Norwegian Urban East [18] å ha [ɔ ˈɣɑː] 'to have' Possible allophone of /h/ between two back vowels; can be voiceless [x] instead.[18] See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Gascon digoc [diˈɣuk] 'said' (3rd pers. sg.)
Pashto غاتر [ɣɑtər] 'mule'
Polish niechże [ˈɲɛɣʐɛ] 'let' (imperative particle) Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese European [19] [20] agora [əˈɣɔɾə] 'now' Allophone of /ɡ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some Brazilian dialects[21] rmore [ˈmaɣmuɾi] 'marble', 'sill' Allophone of rhotic consonant (voiced equivalent to [x], itself allophone of /ʁ/) between voiced sounds, most often as coda before voiced consonants.
Punjabi Gurmukhi ਗ਼ਰੀਬ [ɣ̄əriːb] 'poor'
Shahmukhi غریب
Ripuarian Colognian [citation needed] noch ein[en] [ˈnɔɣ‿ən] 'another one' Allophone of word-final /x/; occurs only immediately before a word that starts with a vowel.[citation needed] See Colognian phonology
Kerkrade dialect [22] vroage [ˈvʀoə̯ɣə] 'to ask' Occurs only after back vowels.[22]
Romani γoines [ɣoines] 'good'
Russian Southern дорога [dɐˈro̞ɣə] 'road' Corresponds to /ɡ/ in standard
Standard угу [ʊˈɣu] 'uh-huh' Usually nasal, /g/ is used when spoken. See Russian phonology
Sakha аҕа [aɣa] 'father'
Sardinian Nuorese dialect ghere [ˈsuɣɛrɛ] 'to suck' Allophone of /ɡ/
Scottish Gaelic laghail [ɫ̪ɤɣal] 'lawful' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian [23] ovih bi [ǒ̞ʋiɣ bi] 'of these would' Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
S'gaw Karen ဂ့ၤ [ɣei] 'good'
Sindhi غم [ɣəmʊ] 'sadness'
Spanish amigo [a̠ˈmiɣo̟] 'friend' Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[24] Allophone of /ɡ/, see Spanish phonology
Swahili ghali [ɣali] 'expensive'
Swedish Westrobothnian meg [mɪːɣ] 'me' Allophone of /ɡ/. Occurs between vowels and in word-final positions.[25] Here also /∅/ in Kalix.
Tadaksahak zog [zoɣ] 'war'
Tajik ғафс [ɣafs] 'thick'
Tamazight aɣilas (aghilas) [aɣilas] 'leopard'
Turkish Non-standard ağ [aɣat͡ʃ] 'tree' Deleted in most dialects. See Turkish phonology
Tutchone Northern ihghú [ihɣǔ] 'tooth'
Southern ghra [ɣra] 'baby'
Ukrainian Allophone of /x/. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek [26] ёмғир / yomir [ʝɒ̜mˈʁ̟ɨɾ̪] 'rain' Post-velar.[26]
Vietnamese [27] ghế [ɣe˧˥] 'chair' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian drage [ˈdraːɣə] 'to carry' Never occurs in word-initial positions.
Yi /we [ɣɤ˧] 'win'
Central Alaskan Yup'ik auga [ˈauːɣa] 'his/her/its blood' Never occurs in word-initial positions.

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ Baker, Peter Stuar (2012). Introduction to Old English (3rd ed.). pp. 15. ISBN 9781444354195. OCLC 778433078 – via Internet Archive. Between voiced sounds dotless g is pronounced [ɣ], a voiced velar spirant. This sound became [w] in Middle English, so English no longer has it.
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  3. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17 and 19-20.
  4. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  5. ^ Hualde (1991), pp. 99–100.
  6. ^ Wheeler (2005), p. 10.
  7. ^ Verhoeven (2005:243)
  8. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:191)
  9. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  10. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:108)
  11. ^ a b Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013. [failed verification]
  12. ^ a b Kachru (2006), p. 20.
  13. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  14. ^ Okada (1999), p. 118.
  15. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  16. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  17. ^ R.E. Keller, German Dialects. Phonology and Morphology, Manchester 1960
  18. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 40.
  19. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  20. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
  21. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 228.
  22. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:17)
  23. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  24. ^ Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 13.
  27. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.

References [ edit ]

  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), "Brazilian Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756
  • Booij, Geert (1999), The phonology of Dutch, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823869-X
  • Collins, Beverley; Mees, Inger M. (2003) [First published 1981], The Phonetics of English and Dutch (5th ed.), Leiden: Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004103406
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos; Aarts, Flor (1999), "The dialect of Maastricht" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, University of Nijmegen, Centre for Language Studies, 29: 155–166, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006526
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge
  • Kachru, Yamuna (2006), Hindi, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 90-272-3812-X
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X
  • Nowikow, Wieczysław (2012) [First published 1992], Fonetyka hiszpańska (3rd ed.), Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN, ISBN 978-83-01-16856-8
  • Okada, Hideo (1999), "Japanese", in International Phonetic Association (ed.), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the Use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge University Press, pp. 117–119, ISBN 978-0-52163751-0
  • Peters, Jörg (2006), "The dialect of Hasselt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (1): 117–124, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002428
  • Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
  • Quilis, Antonio (1981), Fonética acústica de la lengua española, Gredos
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar, Uralic and Altaic Series, 18, Bloomington: Indiana University
  • Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997) [1987], Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (2nd ed.), Kerkrade: Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer, ISBN 90-70246-34-1, archived from the original on 2015-09-19, retrieved 2015-09-09
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language, 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173
  • Watson, Janet C. E. (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7

External links [ edit ]

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