Voiced velar lateral approximant

Voiced velar lateral approximant
IPA Number 158
Entity (decimal) ʟ
Unicode (hex) U+029F
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
Audio sample
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The voiced velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used as a distinct consonant in a very small number[1] of spoken languages in the world. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʟ⟩ (since 1989) and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L\.

The velar laterals of the world often involve a prestopped realization [ɡ͡ʟ].[2]

Features [ edit ]

Features of the voiced velar lateral approximant:

The velar lateral [ʟ] involves no contact of the tip of the tongue with the roof of the mouth: just like for the velar stop [ɡ], the only contact takes place between the back of the tongue and the velum. This contrasts with the velarized alveolar lateral approximant [ɫ] – also known as the dark l in English feel [fiːɫ] – for which the apex touches the alveolar ridge.[3]

Occurrence [ edit ]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Southern US [4] middle, full [ˈmɪdʟ̩], [ˈfʟ̩ː] 'middle', 'full' May occur before or after a velar consonant, as in milk and cycle, when assimilating /ʊ/, as in wolf, or before labial consonants, as in help. See English phonology
Hiw [5] evov [ɡ͡ʟəβɡ͡ʟɔβ] 'evening' Realized as prestopped [ɡ͡ʟ].
Korean 달구지 / dalguji [tɐʟɡud͡ʑi] 'cart' Allophone of final consonant [ɭ] ⟨ㄹ⟩ before velar consonants. See Korean phonology.
Melpa [6] paa [paʟa] 'fence' Realized as prestopped [ɡ͡ʟ].
Mid-Wahgi [7] aglagle [aʟaʟe] 'dizzy' Realized as prestopped [ɡ͡ʟ].

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

References [ edit ]

  • François, Alexandre (2010), "Phonotactics and the prestopped velar lateral of Hiw: resolving the ambiguity of a complex segment" (PDF), Phonology, 27 (3): 393–434, doi:10.1017/s0952675710000205
  • Ladefoged, Peter (2005), Vowels and Consonants (2nd ed.), Blackwell
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing
  • Wells, John C. (1982). Accents of English. Volume 3: Beyond the British Isles (pp. i–xx, 467–674). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-52128541-0 .

External links [ edit ]

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