Voiceless velar lateral approximant

Voiceless velar lateral approximant
IPA Number 158 402A

The voiceless velar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in a very small number of spoken languages in the world. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʟ̥⟩ (since 1989) and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L\_0.

Features [ edit ]

Features of the voiceless velar lateral approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence [ edit ]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Archi мелӏе ло [mekʟ̥e lo] ˈsonˈ Allophone of /kʟ̝̊/ in casual speech, mostly unnoticed.
English Western American[1] clear [kʟ̥iɚ̯] 'clear' Possible allophone of /l/ after the aspirated allophone of /k/.[1] See English phonology
German Austrian [2] klar [kʟ̥ɑː] 'clear' Possible allophone of /l/ after the aspirated allophone of /k/.[2] See Standard German phonology

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ a b Grønnum (2005), p. 154.
  2. ^ a b Grønnum (2005), pp. 153–154.

References [ edit ]

  • Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 87-500-3865-6
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