Wikipedia

# Wikipedia:Mathematical symbols

This page is a quick reference for the "standard" mathematical symbols in HTML that should work on most browsers, and is intended mainly for people editing mathematical articles on Wikipedia.

## Text effects

Underline text:

 underline overline underline {{overline|overline}}

Underline should not be used for emphasis, per MOS:BADEMPHASIS.

Strikeout text:

 strikeout strikeout

Strikethrough is not generally used in prose, per MOS:NOSTRIKE.

Font:

 italics bold ''italics'' '''bold'''

→ Use a serif font for HTML math equation:

 Φ (A) {{math|Φ (A)}}

Superscripts/subscripts:

 x2 x3 x21 x2 x3 x{{su|p=2|b=1}};

## Special characters

Most commonly used non-keyboard characters can be input directly, by:

• Copy-and-paste from the below
• Use the "Insert" pulldown menu immediately below the article text (when editing any Wikipedia page in a desktop web browser).
• Use the "Special characters" menu immediately above the article text (when editing any Wikipedia page in a desktop web browser).

← ↓ → ↑ ↔ ↵ ⇐ ⇓ ⇒ ⇑ ⇔

ƒ ∂ ∫ ∑ Π ∞ ∇ ℘ ℑ ℜ

¬ ∧ ∨ ∃ ∀

∈ ∉ ∋ ∅ ⊆ ⊇ ⊃ ⊂ ⊄ ∪ ∩ ℵ

≠ ≤ ≥ < > ≡ ≢ ∼ ≅ ≈ ∝

° ± × ÷ ⊥ ⊕ ⊗

⌈ ⌉ ⌊ ⌋ « »

⟨ ⟩ or {{angbr}}

† ‡ ¦ ∠ ∴ ◊ ♠ ♣ ♥ ♦

For more:

Though Unicode characters are generally preferred, sometimes HTML entities are needed to avoid problems with wiki syntax or confusion with other characters:

 < > − × • ′ ″ ⋅ · – — < > − × • ′ ″ ⋅ · – —

For more:

## Spacing

Typically whitespace should be a regular space ( ) or none at all.

To avoid line-wrapping in the middle of a formula, use {{math}}. If necessary, a non-breaking space ( ) can be inserted with "&nbsp;".

In rare circumstances, such as where one character overlaps another due to one being in italics, a thin space can be added with {{thin space}}.