Wikipedia

William Lane Craig

William Lane Craig
William Lane Craig.jpg
Born (1949-08-23) August 23, 1949 (age 70)

Residence Marietta, Georgia, US[1]
Education Wheaton College (B.A. 1971)

Trinity Evangelical Divinity School

(M.A. 1974; M.A. 1975)

University of Birmingham (Ph.D. 1977)

University of Munich (D.Theol. 1984)
Notable work
Reasonable Faith (1994)
Spouse(s)
Jan Craig (m. 1972)
Era Contemporary philosophy
Region Western philosophy
School Analytic philosophy

Molinism
Institutions
Doctoral advisor
Other academic advisors Norman Geisler
Main interests
Notable ideas
Kalam cosmological argument
Website reasonablefaith.org

William Lane Craig (born August 23, 1949) is an American analytic philosopher[6] and Christian theologian, historian, and apologist.[7] He holds faculty positions at Talbot School of Theology (Biola University) and Houston Baptist University.[8] Craig has updated and defended the Kalam cosmological argument for the existence of God.[1][9][10][11][12] He has also published work where he argues in favor of the historical plausibility of the resurrection of Jesus.[13] His study of divine aseity and Platonism culminated with his book God Over All.[14][15] Craig has debated the existence of God with Sam Harris, Christopher Hitchens, Lawrence M. Krauss[1] and A. C. Grayling.[16] He established and runs the online apologetics ministry ReasonableFaith.org.[8]

Early life and education [ edit ]

Craig was born August 23, 1949 in Peoria, Illinois to Mallory and Doris Craig.[17][18] While a student at East Peoria Community High School (1963–1967),[19] Craig competed in debate and won the state championship in oratory.[20][1] In September 1965, his junior year, he became a Christian,[21][22][23] and after graduating from high school, attended Wheaton College, majoring in communications.[24][1] Craig graduated in 1971 and the following year married his wife Jan, whom he met on the staff of Campus Crusade for Christ.[24][25] They have two grown children and reside in suburban Atlanta, Georgia.[25] In 2014, he was named alumnus of the year by Wheaton.[24]

In 1973 Craig entered the program in philosophy of religion at Trinity Evangelical Divinity School north of Chicago, where he studied under Norman Geisler.[26][27][1] In 1975 Craig commenced doctoral studies in philosophy at the University of Birmingham, England,[28] writing on the cosmological argument under the direction of John Hick.[29][1] He was awarded a doctorate in 1977.[30] Out of this study came his first book, The Kalam Cosmological Argument (1979), a defense of the argument he first encountered in Hackett's work.[1] Craig was awarded a postdoctoral fellowship in 1978 from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation [31] to pursue research on the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus under the direction of Wolfhart Pannenberg at the Ludwig-Maximillians-Universität München in Germany.[28][32][31][1][26] His studies in Munich under Pannenberg's supervision led to a second doctorate, this one in theology,[24][1] awarded in 1984 with the publication of his doctoral thesis, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy (1985).[33][34]

Career [ edit ]

Craig joined the faculty of Trinity Evangelical Divinity School in 1980, where he taught philosophy of religion until 1986.[35] In 1982 Craig received an invitation to debate Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary, Canada, on the question of God's existence.[36] Encouraged by the reception,[36] Craig has since debated many philosophers, scientists, and biblical scholars.[37][1]

After a one-year stint at Westmont College on the outskirts of Santa Barbara, Craig moved in 1987 with his wife and two young children back to Europe,[38] where he was a visiting scholar at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (Louvain) in Belgium until 1994.[38][39] At that time, Craig joined the Department of Philosophy and Ethics at Talbot School of Theology in suburban Los Angeles as a research professor of philosophy, a position he currently holds,[21][8][40] and he went on to become a professor of philosophy at Houston Baptist University in 2014.[8][40] In 2016, Craig was named Alumnus of the Year by Trinity Evangelical Divinity School.[41] In 2017, Biola created a permanent faculty position and endowed chair, the William Lane Craig Endowed Chair in Philosophy, in honor of Craig's academic contributions.[42]

Craig served as president of the Philosophy of Time Society from 1999 to 2006.[43][44] He helped revitalize the Evangelical Philosophical Society and served as its president from 1996 to 2005.[1]

In the mid-2000s,[45][46] Craig established the online Christian apologetics ministry ReasonableFaith.org.[8]

Philosophical and theological views [ edit ]

Kalam cosmological argument [ edit ]

Craig has written and spoken in defense of a version of the Cosmological Argument called the Kalam cosmological argument.[a][48][49] While the Kalam originated in medieval Islamic philosophy, Craig added appeals to scientific and philosophical ideas in the argument's defense.[1] Craig's work has resulted in contemporary interest in the argument, and in cosmological arguments in general.[50][51][52]

Craig formulates his version of the argument as follows:

  1. Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.[b]
  2. The universe began to exist.
  3. Therefore, the universe has a cause of its existence."[47][50]

Craig's defense of the argument mainly focuses on the second premise,[54][55] and he offers several arguments to support it. For example, Craig appeals to Hilbert's example of an infinite hotel to argue that actually infinite collections are impossible, and thus the past is finite and has a beginning.[56][57][58] And, in another argument, Craig says that the series of events in time is formed by a process in which each moment is added to history in succession. According to Craig, this process can never produce an actually infinite collection of events, but instead produces only a potentially infinite one. On this basis, he argues that the past is finite and has a beginning.[59][60][50]

Craig also appeals to various physical theories to support the argument's second premise, such as the standard Big Bang model of cosmic origins and certain implications of the second law of thermodynamics.[50][1][56]

The Kalam argument concludes that the universe had a cause, but Craig further argues that the cause must be a person.[47] First, he says that the cause of the universe is outside of time, as it causes the beginning of time itself. He then says that causes that are outside of time only have eternal effects if they are non-personal. Given his acceptance of the Kalam argument for a non-eternal universe, he concludes that the cause of the universe must be personal.[61]

Craig's arguments to support the Kalam argument have been discussed and debated by a variety of commentators[62][63] including philosophers Adolf Grünbaum,[64] Quentin Smith,[65][66] Wes Morriston,[67][68] and Graham Oppy.[69]

Molinism [ edit ]

Craig is a proponent of Molinism, an idea first formulated by the Jesuit theologian Luis de Molina according to which God possesses foreknowledge of which free actions each person would perform under every possible circumstance, a kind of knowledge that is sometimes termed "middle knowledge."[70] Molinists such as Craig appeal to this idea to reconcile the perceived conflict between God's providence and foreknowledge with human free will. The idea is that, by relying on middle knowledge, God does not interfere with anyone's free will, instead choosing which circumstances to actualize given a complete understanding of how people will freely choose to act in response.[71] Craig also appeals to Molinism in his discussions of the inspiration of scripture, Christian exclusivism, the perseverance of the Saints, and missionary evangelism.[72]

Divine eternity [ edit ]

Craig believes that "God is timeless without creation and temporal since creation."[73][74][75][76] After examining arguments aimed at showing either that God is timeless or omnitemporal,[73][75][77] Craig defends the coherence of a timeless and personal being, but he also believes the arguments for divine timelessness are unsound or inconclusive and so instead argues in favor of divine temporality.[73][75][78] Craig believes that acceptance of a B-theory of time would moot these arguments, and thus concludes that a theory of time is a watershed issue for a believer’s doctrine of divine eternity.[79] As such, Craig defends his adoption of A-Theory of time in The Tensed Theory of Time (2000),[80][81][82] and critiques arguments for the B-Theory of time in The Tenseless Theory of Time.[83] According to philosopher Quentin Smith, "Craig has made some important and positive contributions to the tensed theory of time in general."[84]

Resurrection of Jesus [ edit ]

Craig has written two volumes arguing for the historicity of the resurrection of Jesus, The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus (1985)[13][85] and Assessing the New Testament Evidence for the Historicity of the Resurrection of Jesus (3rd ed., 2002).[86][87] The first describes the history of the discussion, including David Hume's arguments against the identification of miracles,[13][85] while the second is an exegetical study of the New Testament material pertinent to the resurrection.[87] Craig believes that there was a literal resurrection,[88] rejecting some alternative explanations such as Gerd Lüdemann's hallucination hypothesis.[89] Craig Morriston specifically challenges Craig's arguments relating to this subject.[90]

Divine aseity [ edit ]

Stating that the Quine–Putnam indispensability thesis is the chief support of Platonism,[91] Craig criticizes Willard Van Orman Quine's naturalized epistemology and confirmational holism, and also rejects the metaontological criterion of ontological commitment.[92] This is ultimately in support of his belief in divine aseity or self-existence.[93][verification needed][94] Craig rejects the view that God creates abstract objects[95] and defends nominalistic perspectives on abstract objects.[96]

Craig favors a neutral logic, according to which the formal quantifiers of first-order logic, as well as the informal quantifiers of ordinary language, are not ontologically committing.[97][94] He also advocates a deflationary theory of reference,[94] according to which referring is a speech act rather than a word-world relation, so that singular terms may be used in true sentences without commitment to corresponding objects in the world.[98] If one stipulates that first-order quantifiers are being used as devices of ontological commitment, then Craig adverts to fictionalism,[94] in particular pretense theory,[94] according to which statements about abstract objects are expressions of make-believe, imagined to be true, though literally false.[99]

Other views [ edit ]

Craig is a critic of metaphysical naturalism,[100] New Atheism,[101] and prosperity theology,[102] as well as a defender of Reformed epistemology.[103] He also states that a confessing Christian should not engage in homosexual acts.[104][105][106][107] Craig maintains that the theory of evolution is compatible with Christianity.[108][109] Craig is not convinced that the "current evolutionary paradigm is entirely adequate" to explain the emergence of biological complexity, and he is inclined to think that God had to periodically intervene to produce this effect.[110][111] He is a fellow of the Discovery Institute's Center for Science and Culture[112] and was a fellow of the International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design.[113]

As a divine command theorist, Craig believes God had the moral right to command the killing of the Canaanites if they refused to leave their land, as depicted in the Book of Deuteronomy.[114][115] This has led to some controversy, as seen in a critique by Wes Morriston.[116][117] The prominent atheist Richard Dawkins has repeatedly refused to debate Craig, and has given what he calls Craig's defense of genocide as one of his reasons.[118][119]

Craig has also proposed an Apollinarian Christology in which the divine logos stands in for the human soul of Christ and completes his human nature.[120]

Reception [ edit ]

According to Nathan Schneider, "[many] professional philosophers know about him only vaguely, but in the field of philosophy of religion, [Craig's] books and articles are among the most cited".[1] Fellow philosopher Quentin Smith writes that "William Lane Craig is one the leading philosophers of religion and one of the leading philosophers of time."[74]

In apologetics cicles Craig is considerably well-known, and he's widely regarded as an extremely talented debater. With respect to his debating skills, Sam Harris once described Craig as “the one Christian Apologist who seems to have put the fear of God into many of my fellow atheists“.[1]

Selected publications [ edit ]

See also [ edit ]

Notes [ edit ]

  1. ^ Craig's own version of the Kalām argument is succinct: 1. 'Everything that begins to exist has a cause of its existence.' 2. 'The universe began to exist,' i.e., the temporal regress of events is finite. 3. 'Therefore the universe has a cause of its existence' Following Ghazali, Craig argues that this cause must be a personal will. Nothing but the arbitrary choice of a free agent could account for the fact that the world was created at one time rather than another, or (if time comes into being with the first event) for the fact that the first event did not have a predecessor.[47]
  2. ^ In his later work, Craig prefers to use a more specific version of the first premise; as he puts it: "Suffice it to say that I now prefer to reformulate the causal premise: 'If the universe began to exist, then the universe has a cause of its beginning.'[53][full citation needed]

References [ edit ]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Schneider, Nathan (July 1, 2013). "The New Theist: How William Lane Craig Became Christian Philosophy's Boldest Apostle". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
  2. ^ Craig & Carroll 2016, p. 102.
  3. ^ a b c Craig, William Lane (August 23, 2011). "Dr. Craig's Favorite Philosopher, Debate, and Books". Reasonable Faith (podcast). Interviewed by Harris, Kevin. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  4. ^ Alvarez 2013, p. 238.
  5. ^ Roach, David (September 8, 2014). "Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg Dies". Baptist Press. Southern Baptist Convention. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  6. ^ Schneider, Nathan (1 July 2013). "The New Theist". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 11 June 2019. The result is a person [Craig] ... who cannot only hold his own against fellow analytic philosophers...
  7. ^ Creel 2014, p. 205.
  8. ^ a b c d e Murashko, Alex (5 February 2014). "Leading Apologist William Lane Craig to Join Houston Baptist U's School of Christian Thought Faculty". The Christian Post. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  9. ^ Reichenbach, Bruce. "Cosmological Argument". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University. Retrieved 12 June 2019. In his widely discussed writings William Lane Craig marshals multidisciplinary evidence for the truth of the premises found in the kalām argument.... [much more discussion follows]
  10. ^ Sun, Eryn (30 Sep 2011). "Dawkins defends decision not to debate apologist William Lane Craig". Christianity Today. Retrieved 12 June 2019. ...[Craig is the] the leading Christian apologist, famous for his revival of the Kalam cosmological argument which asserts that God caused the universe to first exist.
  11. ^ Horn, Trent (17 July 2013). "New Support for the Cosmological Argument". catholic.com. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Although the argument fell into relatively obscurity after it was promoted in the Middle Ages, it received new life through William Lane Craig’s 1979 book The Kalam Cosmological Argument. Craig has become the argument’s leading proponent, and thanks to his famous debates with atheists that end up on YouTube, the kalam argument has become well-known and is vigorously dissected by critics.
  12. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 212.
  13. ^ a b c Habermas 1988.
  14. ^ Craig 2016.
  15. ^ McNabb, Tyler Dalton. "Review of God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism by William Lane Craig". Journal of Biblical and Theological Studies. ISSN 2572-2832.
  16. ^ Premier. "Unbelievable? 5 Jul 2011 - William Lane Craig vs AC Grayling debate on God & Evil: Tuesday 05 July 2011 2:30:00 am". Premier Christian Radio.
  17. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Does the Problem of Material Constitution Illuminate the Doctrine of the Trinity?". Retrieved 10 July 2019. I am the second child of Mallory and Doris Craig...
  18. ^ Craig, William Lane (February 5, 2018). "Questions on Certainty and Debate". Retrieved 22 July 2019. But that doesn't undermine my knowledge that I was born in Peoria, Illinois and raised in Keokuk, Iowa.
  19. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Debating". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2014.
  20. ^ "Records and History – Original Oratory". Illinois High School Association. Retrieved May 27, 2015.
  21. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". La Mirada, California: Biola University. Archived from the original on August 14, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2014.
  22. ^ "William Lane Craig and Sean McDowell". Fervr. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  23. ^ Craig, William Lane (November 5, 2007). "Faith and Doubt". Retrieved 10 July 2019. To speak personally, I myself was not raised in an evangelical home, but I became a Christian my third year of high school.
  24. ^ a b c d "Dr. William Lane Craig Named Alumnus of the Year". Wheaton, Illinois: Wheaton College. May 7, 2014. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2014.
  25. ^ a b Schneider, Nathan (July 12, 2013). "7 Habits of a Highly Effective Philosopher". Killing the Buddha. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  26. ^ a b Craig, William Lane. "Double Doctorates". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 10, 2014.
  27. ^ "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  28. ^ a b "William Lane Craig". calvin.edu. Calvin College. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  29. ^ Cramer, David C. "John Hick (1922—2012)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Many of [Hick's] former students are now established Christian philosophers in their own right, including ... William Lane Craig...
  30. ^ "The Cadbury Lectures 2015: God Over All Back to 'The Cadbury lectures' 16 March - 20 March 2015". University of Birmingham. Retrieved 22 July 2019. Hosted by the John Hick Centre for Philosophy of Religion. Our theme for 2015 is 'God Over All' , and will consist of a series of lectures given by Professor William Lane Craig (Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University; PhD University of Birmingham 1977).
  31. ^ a b "Humboldt Network: Prof. Dr. William L. Craig". Alexander von Humboldt Foundation. Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung/Foundation. Retrieved 16 July 2019. Host(s) and host institute(s) during Humboldt sponsorship: Prof. Dr. Wolfhart Pannenberg, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München; Start of first sponsorship: 01.01.1978
  32. ^ Sanders, Fred (18 September 2014). "The Strange Legacy of Theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on 21 September 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Accordingly, Pannenberg marshaled the available evidence and argued that the most rational interpretation of it is that Christ actually rose from the dead. That a high-level German theologian would defend Christ’s resurrection as a knowable fact was headline news in the religious press of the 1970s. It’s no surprise, then, that Pannenberg’s emphasis on the historical reliability of the Resurrection attracted students like apologist William Lane Craig.
  33. ^ "The historical argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist controversy". WorldCat. Online Computer Library Center. Retrieved 9 April 2019.
  34. ^ Pearson, Samuel C. (Oct 1988). "Book Review: The Historical Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus during the Deist Controversy. William L. Craig". The Journal of Religion. The University of Chicago Press. 68 (4): 595. In this large study, which apparently grew out of a dissertation prepared under the supervision of Wolfhart Pannenberg...
  35. ^ "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Trinity International University. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Craig earned master’s degrees from TEDS in philosophy of religion, as well as in church history and the history of Christian thought. He taught philosophy of religion at TEDS from 1980–1986.
  36. ^ a b Craig, William Lane (April 5, 2010). "#155 Debating". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 31 July 2019. But in 1982, with my doctoral studies behind me, I received an invitation from a Canadian Christian group to debate the atheist philosopher Kai Nielsen at the University of Calgary.
  37. ^ Stafforini, Pablo (August 18, 2016). "William Lane Craig: A Complete List of Debates". Pablo's Miscellany. Pablo Stafforini. Archived from the original on June 11, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  38. ^ a b Craig, William Lane (2000). "Author Bio". The Only Wise God: The Compatibility of Divine Foreknowledge & Human Freedom (Reprint edition (January 2000) ed.). Wipf and Stock. ISBN 978-1579103163. From 1980 to 1986 he taught philosophy of religion at Trinity, during which time he and Jan started their family. In 1987 they moved to Brussels, Belgium, where Dr. Craig pursued research at the University of Louvain until 1994.
  39. ^ "Contributors". International Philosophical Quarterly. Fordham University Press. 33: 142. 1993. William Lane Craig is a visiting scholar at the Inst. Supérieur de Philosophie at the Catholic Univ. of Louvain (B-3000 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium), PhD from Univ. of Birmingham (Eng.) and DTh from the Univ. of Munich, he taught at Westmont College and is a Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Siftung. Interested in Philosophy of Religion and of Space and Time, he includes in his publications the books The Kalam Cosmological Argument and Divine Foreknowledge and Human Freedom.
  40. ^ a b Kristof, Nicholas (21 Dec 2018). "Professor, Was Jesus Really Born to a Virgin?". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. p. SR23. Retrieved 12 June 2019. Here’s my interview of William Lane Craig, professor of philosophy at Talbot School of Theology and Houston Baptist University.
  41. ^ Trinity International University (July 22, 2016). "William Lane Craig Named TEDS Alumnus of the Year". Buffalo Grove Countryside. Archived from the original on July 26, 2016. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  42. ^ Wu, Joanna (Spring 2017). "William Lane Craig Named in Biola's First Endowed Chair". Biola Magazine. La Mirada, California: Biola University. p. 15. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  43. ^ Robinson & Baggett 2016, p. 213.
  44. ^ Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 74:2. November 2000. p. 162.
  45. ^ "Reasonable Faith Inc". Nonprofit Explorer. ProPublica. Retrieved 5 August 2019.
  46. ^ Craig, William Lane; Harris, Kevin (March 3, 2019). "Dr Craig's Interview in the New York Times". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved 5 August 2019. That's one of the reasons we founded Reasonable Faith over ten years ago
  47. ^ a b c Wainwright 1982, p. 328.
  48. ^ Cowan & Spiegel 2009, pp. 268–269; Jackson 2014, p. 19; Peterson et al. 2013, pp. 86–89; Reichenbach 2017; Williams 2013, p. 89.
  49. ^ "Who's Who: Modern Authors: William Lane Craig (Entry 2)". Philosophy of Religion.info. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  50. ^ a b c d Reichenbach 2019.
  51. ^ Smith 2007, p. 183.
  52. ^ Oppy 2006, p. 137.
  53. ^ Craig 2017, p. 302.
  54. ^ Copan 2017, p. 4.
  55. ^ Le Poidevin, Robin (2003). Arguing for Atheism: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Religion. Routledge. ISBN 9781134871117.
  56. ^ a b Wainwright 1982, p. 329.
  57. ^ Moreland 2003.
  58. ^ Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 103.
  59. ^ Wainwright 1982, p. 333.
  60. ^ Craig & Sinclair 2009, p. 117.
  61. ^ Morriston 2000.
  62. ^ Quinn, Philip I. (2003). "God, Existence Of". In van Huyssteen, J Wentzel Vrede (ed.). Encyclopedia of Science and Religion. Thomson-Gale. pp. 381–382. ISBN 9780028657042.
  63. ^ McGrath, Alister E. (2009). Science and Religion: A New Introduction. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405187909. This form of the kalam argument has been widely debated in recent years. One of its most signficant defenders has been William Lane Craig...
  64. ^ Grünbaum, Adolf (1994). "Some Comments on William Craig's "Creation and Big Bang Cosmology"". Philosophia Naturalis. 31 (2): 225–236.
  65. ^ Smith, Quentin (2007). "Kalam cosmological arguments for atheism". In Martin, Michael (ed.). The Cambridge Companion to Atheism. pp. 192–194.
  66. ^ Smith 2007.
  67. ^ Morriston 2013.
  68. ^ Morriston 2018.
  69. ^ Oppy 2006, pp. 137-153.
  70. ^ Perzyk 2013, p. 755.
  71. ^ Perzyk 2013, p. 755-756.
  72. ^ Perzyk 2013, p. 765.
  73. ^ a b c Quarum, Merrit (2003). "Review: Time and Eternity: Exploring God's Relationship to Time". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. 46 (4): 746–749.
  74. ^ a b Ganssle, Gregory E. "God and Time". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002.
  75. ^ a b c Helm, Paul (2014). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Eternity". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University (Spring 2014 Edition). ISSN 1095-5054. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
  76. ^ Helm 2011, pp. 220ff.
  77. ^ Craig 2000c.
  78. ^ Craig 1996.
  79. ^ Craig 2001c, p. 115.
  80. ^ Craig, William Lane (2000). The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination. ISBN 978-0792366348.
  81. ^ Dyke, Heather (2002). "Review of The Tensed Theory of Time". International Philosophical Quarterly. 42 (3): 404–406. doi:10.5840/ipq200242331.
  82. ^ Copan, Paul (2001). "Reviewed Work: The Tensed Theory of Time: A Critical Examination by William Lane Craig". The Review of Metaphysics. 55 (2): 384–385.
  83. ^ Copan, Paul (2001). "Reviewed Work: The Tenseless Theory of Time: A Critical Examination by William Lane Craig". The Review of Metaphysics. 55 (2): 386–388.
  84. ^ Smith, Quentin (1999). "The "Sentence-Type Version" of the Tenseless Theory of Time". Synthese. 119 (3): 233–251. doi:10.1023/A:1005130104563.
  85. ^ a b Craig 1985b.
  86. ^ Habermas, Gary R. (2005). "Resurrection Research From 1975 to the Present: What are Critical Scholars Saying?". Journal for the Study of the Historical Jesus. 3 (2): 135–153. doi:10.1177/1476869005058192.
  87. ^ a b Craig 1989.
  88. ^ Craig 2008, p. 360.
  89. ^ Craig, William Lane. "Visions of Jesus: A Critical Assessment of Gerd Lüdemann's Hallucination Hypothesis". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  90. ^ Law 2011.
  91. ^ Liggins 2008.
  92. ^ Craig, William Lane (October 28, 2012). "Can We Refer to Things That Are Not Present?". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on July 14, 2017. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  93. ^ Craig 2014.
  94. ^ a b c d e Oppy, Graham (30 May 2017). "God Over All: Divine Aseity and the Challenge of Platonism: Reviewed by Graham Oppy, Monash University". Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews. ISSN 1538-1617. Retrieved 12 June 2019.
  95. ^ Moreland & Craig 2003, pp. 506–507.
  96. ^ Craig 2012a.
  97. ^ Craig 2012b.
  98. ^ Båve 2009.
  99. ^ Nichols & Stich 1999.
  100. ^ Craig & Moreland 2000.
  101. ^ Copan & Craig 2009.
  102. ^ Craig, William Lane (March 28, 2010). "Lightning Strikes Again". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  103. ^ "Religious Epistemology MP3 Audio by William Lane Craig". Apologetics 315. December 30, 2008. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  104. ^ Craig 2003, pp. 133.
  105. ^ Zaimov, Stoyan (April 9, 2013). "Christian Apologist Says Church 'Losing Battle' Against Hate Label for Homosexuality Stance". The Christian Post. Retrieved September 28, 2018. What you shouldn't be is a confessing Christian and a practicing homosexual.
  106. ^ Craig, William Lane. "A Christian Perspective on Homosexuality". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on December 6, 2016. Retrieved September 28, 2018. So how do you find out what God thinks? The Christian says, you look in the Bible. And the Bible tells us that God forbids homosexual acts. Therefore, they are wrong.
  107. ^ Craig, William Lane (May 19, 2008). "Christian Homosexuals?". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  108. ^ Stewart 2007.
  109. ^ Craig, William Lane (February 20, 2012). "Evolutionary Theory and Theism". Reasonable Faith. Archived from the original on October 2, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  110. ^ Craig, William Lane (2009). "William Lane Craig's View on Creation and Evolution". YouTube. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  111. ^ "Evolutionary Creationism and the Image of God in Mankind". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved June 25, 2016. Evolutionary creationism is...the view that the current evolutionary paradigm is entirely adequate, so that the evolution of presently observed biological complexity requires no causal input from God. ... I’m not convinced that evolutionary creationism is true. It seems to me that so-called progressive creationism fits the evidence quite nicely. Progressive creationism suggests that God intervenes periodically to bring about miraculously new forms of life and then allows evolutionary change to take place with respect to those life forms.
  112. ^ "William Lane Craig". Discovery Institute. Archived from the original on September 1, 2011. Retrieved December 8, 2016.
  113. ^ "Society Fellows". International Society for Complexity, Information, and Design. Archived from the original on September 28, 2018. Retrieved October 9, 2011.
  114. ^ Copan & Flannagan 2014, pp. 81–82; Howson 2011, p. 11.
  115. ^ Craig, William Lane (August 8, 2011). "The 'Slaughter' of the Canaanites Re-visited". Reasonable Faith. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  116. ^ Morriston 2012.
  117. ^ Morriston 2009.
  118. ^ Dawkins, Richard (October 20, 2011). "Why I Refuse to Debate with William Lane Craig". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  119. ^ Came, Daniel (October 22, 2011). "Richard Dawkins's Refusal to Debate Is Cynical and Anti-Intellectualist". The Guardian. London. Retrieved September 28, 2018.
  120. ^ Moreland & Craig 2003, p. 608.

Bibliography [ edit ]

Alvarez, Daniel R. (2013). "A Critique of Wolfhart Pannenberg's Scientific Theology". Theology and Science. 11 (3): 224–250. doi:10.1080/14746700.2013.809950. ISSN 1474-6719.
Båve, Arvid (2009). "A Deflationary Theory of Reference". Synthese. 169 (1): 51–73. doi:10.1007/s11229-008-9336-4. ISSN 1573-0964.
Copan, Paul; Craig, William Lane, eds. (2009). Contending with Christianity's Critics: Answering New Atheists & Other Objectors. Nashville, Tennessee: B&H Academic. ISBN 978-0-8054-4936-5.
Copan, Paul; Flannagan, Matthew (2014). Did God Really Command Genocide? Coming to Terms with the Justice of God. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Books. ISBN 978-0-8010-1622-6.
Cowan, Steven B.; Spiegel, James S. (2009). The Love of Wisdom: A Christian Introduction to Philosophy. Nashville, Tennessee: B&H Academic. ISBN 978-0-8054-4770-5.

 ———  (1985b). The Historial Argument for the Resurrection of Jesus During the Deist Controversy. E. Mellen Press. ISBN 0889468117. CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link)

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